Cook asparagus in salted boiling water for 1 minute. Drain and shock in an ice bath. Drain and set aside at room temperature.
Cook penne according to package instructions, reserving some pasta water.
Drain penne and place in a large bowl with crumbled goat cheese and 2 T. olive oil, toss to coat. Add enough hot pasta water to make a smooth creamy sauce. Season with thyme, salt and pepper. Gently fold in the asparagus.
Meanwhile, fry eggs sunny-side-up in 1 T. olive oil.
Divide penne among 4 plates. Drizzle with balsamic syrup. Top with fried egg.